Each pair of wires of the warp skeleton, which is made up of twisted wool, cotton, or silk threads called warps, are arranged side by side along the length of the rug, and a row is formed by looping wool, silk, and floss yarn. Then a mat is woven, having a certain pattern character and pile height, by placing a row of wool or cotton yarn on it and compressing it. This mat is called a rug. So what exactly is this rug warp?
Rug warp is a yarn produced by twisting wool, cotton, and silk that is passed between the lower and upper beams of the rug loom, horizontally along with the rug. Warp is an important factor in determining rug quality. Quality is the number of rows of 10 cm wide warp wire and 10 cm long loops on the rug. The product of the number of warp wires in 10 cm and the number of rows of loops in 10 cm gives us the total loop (knot) in 1 decimeter square.
Warp Preparation on Looms Used in Rug Weaving
As warp threads, threads made of wool, mohair, buff, cotton are used. Care is taken to ensure that the warp thread is double twisted. For the preparation of warp thread, yarn is prepared as the number of holes and gaps of the comb with a length slightly longer than the length of the fabric intended to be made and a width of 2 cm more than the width of the weave. While preparing the warp yarn, the length to be weaved is determined. Fringe share and wastage share are added to the size obtained. Preparing warp thread is as follows:
- Choose warp yarn (Make sure that it is not flexible, twisted, and solid.).
- Calculate the warp length.
- Select the warp tool. On the table looms, the warp is prepared on the loom.
- Using the table loom, stretch the warp thread to the specified length.
- Cut warp threads from one side or both sides according to the size.
Since the warp is prepared on the loom, there is no transfer to the loom. The tension of the threads on the table benches is provided by turning the beams and tightening the thumbscrews. Vertical benches are divided into two as winding looms and stretching benches. It is used in weaving as wood and iron.
On the rug patterns, it is stated what the size of the rug will be when it is woven. Warps are threads that run along the bottom and top rollers of the loom. The rug is woven with stitches on these threads. For this reason, the size of the rug is taken as the warp size. The warp length is calculated by adding the amount of rug weave and fringe on both sides of the rug and the amount required for the loom.
Warp can be solved in different ways. The important thing is that the warp is dissolved properly. Using a warp tool gives better results for this. The warp tool has a fixed tube on one side and a moving tube on the other. This pipe is adjusted according to the warp length. Before preparing the warp, the material should be selected according to the pattern, quality, and size of the rug we will weave.
The longer one of the two bar bars (sometimes both of the same length) on the weaving loom is attached to the warp bar bars to be passed to the top roller. During the installation process, the center of the bar iron is found first. According to the width of the rug to be woven, the excess is given towards the edges on both bars, with the top bar being more. The reason for the surplus is to prevent the shrinkage of the index as a result of pulling the warp wires inward while weaving.
These excesses are 1 cm per meter in the lower roller and 4 cm in the upper roller. should be. This process is called the beginning and end-setting of the warp. Before the warp is put on the bars, a mark is placed on the iron every 10cm. According to the quality of the rug to be woven, the number of warp wires that will reach 10 cm is counted and the necessary distribution between the marked parts is provided. For example, if 40 * 40 quality rugs are to be woven, 40 wires should come between the two marks on the bar bars. However, it should be taken into account in the width to be given against narrowing in the width.
The warp-marked parts attached to the bar bars prepared in this way are also tied with colored threads. One person also hits the warp wires with a stick to straighten the wires, which are stretched by two people passing opposite each other. The bar is placed in the slot in the roller, with the center of the bar in the middle of the roller. If the bar bars are too long and do not fit into the slot, they are attached to the pins on the roller.
Warp wires are straightened and wrapped on the roller. The warp is attached to the lower roller in the same way. In order to straighten the wires, it is necessary to wrap and open the warp on the upper and lower roller several times. It is stretched with a warp stretching machine attached to a vertical bench. If there are loose wires, the warp is cut close to the lower bar, stretched, and knotted.
Warp Yarns Used in Rug Weaving
Warps are yarns produced by twisting wool, cotton, and silk. They are cross-length threads parallel to each other perpendicular to the floor, which is placed on the loom by passing between the lower and upper bars of the rug loom. Warp threads are vertical threads that go through the weaving and are prepared by stretching on a loom before weaving. The warp threads used in weaving are divided into cotton warp threads and silk warp threads:
- Cotton Warp Yarns
When the cotton thread is viewed under the microscope, it is seen that the fiber has rotated around itself. Cotton has a natural dullness. It can be easily polished with the mercerization process. Long-fiber cotton is robust. The friction strength of the fiber is high, so it can be used for a long time. Cotton threads are durable and can be used for a long time. It is used in thick coarse rugs. It is less flexible than wool and silk. Its shape, free of foreign substances, absorbs moisture. It is resistant to friction, heat, abrasion, and alkali. When burned, it leaves the ash residue and gives a woody odor.
- Silk Warp Yarns
Silk is the thinnest fiber found in nature, it is unfolded and straight. Silk is very sensitive to light, it will break and discolor. Although the fibers are very thin, the spinning wheel silk is very resistant to breaking. Items woven from silk threads are generally used as accessories. It is used in thin rugs.
In order to increase the durability of cotton, silk, rayon, and other weaving materials in weaving warps and to ensure that the yarn is slippery and comfortable to work without breaking, the floured or gummy melt through which the yarn is passed is called size, and this job is called sizing. Generally, the items in sizing are of two types:
Adhesives are dextrin, flour, starch, gelatin, tragacanth, gum, resin, and alcoholic substances. Oily substances are glycerin, white linseed oil, olive and sesame oils, soap, tallow, gasoline, and paraffin waxed substances. The adhesives remain on the fibers of silk, cotton, and other threads, adhere and harden the fiber. Oily substances alleviate the hardness given by adhesive and gummy substances. It makes the yarn slippery.
Sizing is applied in various ways in the world. Large cotton weaving mills use Dichstrin solution. Synthetic materials have started to be sized. In hand weaving, sizing is usually done after dyeing if the yarns are to be dyed and in a hank. First quality wheat flour is used for this job. Three methods are used for sizing cotton and silk yarns: Wet sizing, solid sizing, and boiling.
- Wet Sizing
In order to make wet sizing, 500 grams of grain flour is calculated for a package of yarn in summer and 750 grams in winter. 5–6 liters of 1 liter of water is heated. Flour is poured into the remaining cold water little by little and crushed thoroughly without clumping. It is added by mixing the heated water on it. A slurry is formed. This slurry is boiled for 15 minutes, then lowered. After the hand is cool enough to last, the previously boiled yarns are taken in hank and kept in this slurry.
The threads that absorb the slurry are tightened and whipped and put in a clean place. In other skeins, it is hung in a cool place after being scalded. From time to time, skeins are stretched and whisked between the two hands so that the threads do not stick together. In a moist state, the warp is prepared by wrapping the bobbins.
- Solid Sizing
After the flour is crushed and made into a slurry, it is boiled and cooked like pudding. Fire is put into it. If it does not turn off, it is cooked. It is lowered, cooled. From this solidified slurry, it is diluted as necessary and the yarns are sized as described above. Solid size can stay for several days in a cool place. If it is too hot, it turns sour. To prevent this a little bit, some bluestone or formalin should be added at the time of boiling.
To make this type of size, one kilogram of flour must be calculated for a pack of cotton yarn. Flour is crushed in a cauldron. Water is completed to 15 liters. The threads are pressed into the cauldron in hanks and the cauldron is boiled. After 15-20 minutes of boiling, the cauldron is removed from the heat and left to cool a little. The threads are pulled out, tightened and twisted, and suspended. Warp is prepared while it is moist. It is useful to add some salt to the slurry in very arid places.
- Boiling Together
If the size is to be made with starch, then 250 grams of starch should be used for 1 package of yarn. However, in sizing with starch, yarns are not wrapped in bobbins as wet, they are expected to dry. The yarns that start to dry are opened manually, the excess size is poured and wrapped in bobbins.
Methods and Techniques Used in Warp Preparation
Warping is the process of making the warp threads parallel to each other so that they can be woven on the loom. The warp loom consists of two sideboards on which wooden bars are nailed in zigzags on a frame for attaching the bobbins, and the lower board for lifting the warp knuckles. Generally, the warp is prepared in 3 ways.
- Preparing Warp on the Ground
In this method, iron bars are nailed to the ground at certain intervals. Especially two of them are closer to each other than the others. The creel with rollers on it is held by the handle part and passed between these iron rods. When it comes to two rods that are close to each other, the nozzles of the threads taken into the cross are passed to these rods. Go back and continue solving until the quorum is completed. Therefore, a mouthpiece is opened between the two thread groups.
Cross, with the help of the fingers, passed to these nozzles formed between the thread groups, the cross is transferred onto the iron rods or mouthpiece threads. The horizontal bars parallel to each other in the creel are holes in the middle. The ends of the threads of the ages on one side are passed through gaps. The threads passing through the holes are fixed and the threads passing through the gaps are free. They can move within this opening. In this case, although the threads passing through the holes remain fixed when turning the creel to the right, the threads in the gap move in the opposite direction.
- Preparing Warp on the Wall
The warp bobbins, which were previously prepared by wrapping the yarn on them, are attached to the bars of the vehicle called the creel in some places. It is a frame made of wood with warp bobbins on the rods passing through the associative holes. While preparing the warp, the warp color report is taken into consideration and collected by hand from the bobbins. Then this bundle of ropes is tied to one of the nails at the bottom or top of the nails placed at certain intervals on the wall.
After that, each warp wire is crossed using the thumb and index fingers. The ‘shedding’ process is important in order to prevent the warp wires from getting tangled in the future. In addition, the number of colored warp threads in the warp color repeat is determined by this crossing process. The warp wires, which are collected again after crossing, are looped through all the nails on the wall and the warp is completed along the length of the warp.
Thus, when the warp length equal to the desired weaving length is obtained, the yarns are cut and tied again by taking a certain number and order of yarn from the bobbins, crossing, looping from the nails, and cutting when the warp length is completed. These operations are continued until the required number of warp threads in the width of the fabric is completed. For example, if 20 warp thread strands are entangled at one time for a weave that requires 1000 warp wires in width, this process is repeated 50 times.
- Preparing Warp in the Cupboard
In some places, it is used in vertical cabinets formed by two rectangles made of thick laths that can go into each other to prepare warps. These cabinets can rotate around an axis that is passed through the point where the short edges intersect, and one end is attached to the ceiling and the other to the floor. There are nails that are used to pass the warp wires on the long edges.
In order to prepare warp, a certain number of yarns are unwound from the bobbins in the creel, a cross is made at the lower end of the long side of the cabinet, and the warp wires are wrapped spirally from the bottom to the top by rotating the cabinet. When it comes to the upper corner of the cabinet, it is turned over and rolled back this time. At the lower end, the cross is made again and the process continues until the weaving transverse required warp wire is completed.
After all these processes, the warps that are removed from the nails on the wall or taken out of the cupboard are carried to the loom and stored in the form of a ball or knitted in the form of a chain until they are drawn.
Warp Types in the Structure of the Rug
There are basically four yarn groups in the face to face rug structure. These are ground warps, pile warps, fill warps, and wefts. Today, all yarn groups used in face-to-face rug weaving systems are preferred with two to six layers.
- Ground Warps
It is the warp thread that forms the floors of the rugs. The machine can be taken from a single beam parallel to the width, or from two separate beams lined side by side. The tensions of the ground warp taken from the strands are in the same proportion. While the ground warps coming from the strands are completely used in single-layered rugs, the warps are crossed over in double-layered rugs, and odd-numbered warps are used on the lower rug or the upper rug, on the contrary to the odd-numbered warps.
The warps used in the upper rug are called the upper floor, and the warps used in the lower rug are called the lower floor. Ground warps are the threads that make up the main weave on the rug floor. Cotton, polyester, or their blends are generally used in floor warps.
- Pile (Surface) Warps
They are the threads that form the pile on the rug surface. The pile threads generally consist of bobbins arranged according to a certain drawing order from hangers called creel. Their tensions are less than ground and backfill warps. In order to ensure the individual discharge and tension of the pile warps lined up on the creel, the distances between the coils and the machine are placed in front of the bobbins, and behind them, weights in different grams (25-50-100-200 grams) are twisted in a U-shape made of stainless metals.
There are bobbins prepared for the pile as much as the color layer of the pile columns at the width of the rug to be woven on the creel. Wool, viscose, acrylic, polyamide, and polypropylene fibers are used as pile warp. Nowadays usually wool, acrylic, or mixtures of the two are preferred.
- Fill Warps
They are the yarns that provide a more solid structure by compressing the loops formed by the warp yarns that make up the pile surface in the rug and provide a certain thickness to the rug. They are not visible on the back and surface of the rug. Filling warps are taken from beams prepared separately from the ground warps. One of the filler warps taken into the cross is used as a fill warp in the lower rug and the other as a fill warp in the upper rug.
Fill warps have more tension than the yarn tension that forms the ground warp. Cotton, polyester, or their blends are generally used as filling warp.
- Connection Warps
The pile warps that make up the surface of the rug are the yarns that form the ground, which allows them to have a more robust structure by compressing the wefts from one bottom to the top. They appear on the back of the rug. Connection warps are taken from beams prepared separately from filling warps. One of the cross-stitched tie warps is used as the tie warp in the lower rug and the other as the connection warp in the upper rug. Or, for the upper and lower rug, bond warp from separate beams is used.
The connection warps have less tension than the thread tension that makes up the fill warp. Cotton, polyester, or their blends are generally used as tie warp. These are warps that strengthen the back of the rug. This warp is also known as “loose warp” in enterprises.
How to Work with Rug Warps
Various methods of warping are applied. These are listed below:
- The warp made between these two sticks by striking two sticks on the stone wall,
- The warp made between these two sticks by striking two sticks on the ground,
- Warp made between two pipes by attaching pipes to the holes drilled according to the warp length in the concrete floor,
- Warp made with a second pipe, one of which is fixed and the other one can be adjusted to the desired length, by mounting two pipes to a wooden plank of 20×20 length according to the warp length
- Warp made in the warp apparatus made of profile iron,
- Warp apparatus made of metal, which is warped with a machine.
As it is known, hand weaving looms are divided into two as stretching and wrapping. It is used in both types of looms around the world. However, in order to produce carpet close to the desired quality, the warp must be dissolved very carefully and properly. Tension loom is of great importance in unraveling such a warp.
Various types of looms are used in countries and regions producing hand-made carpets, as well as warping with various methods. Most of these are the continuation of the warping methods invented and applied in the impossibilities of centuries ago. The best of these methods is a warp on the stretching loom, a warp made by power. Warping consists of two stages: preparation and application.
The stretch bench is chosen according to the size of the carpet we will weave. This bench should not be larger than a 1-meter wide carpet. One is not enough for a larger counter. For this reason, warping on large looms is done by the team. Our bench should be adjusted in such a way that we can work standing and at the height where we will warp. The warp to be unwound should be mounted parallel to the floor, in a way that it will not swing, slip, distort the measure between beams and securely.
Depending on the size of the warp, the lower and upper beams should be finely adjusted and fixed. The warp force should be placed very close to the lower beam, to the right of its power, and it should be temporarily clamped to the side beams from both ends. The top of the lower and upper beam and warp strength should be drawn at 10 cm intervals, taking into consideration the warp size. In this way, with the help of lines, we place the warp wires according to the warp quality and control our warp every 10 cm.
This way of working makes the warp quality and saves the warp in terms of time and material. Our loom is now in a position to warp. A good warp is a warp that ends with no or minimal break after starting the warp. Therefore, before starting the warp, we need to prepare all the necessary tools and equipment next to our warping loom so that the warp we will need at the time of warping does not leave the warp or not. This way of working is only one of the conditions of quality warping.
As the person who will perform warp, we must take our place where we can easily wrap the warp wound reel to the lower and upper beams of our loom with only body movements. We connect the end of our warping to the first line above warp power. These tours continue systematically. When we complete the number of wires required for our carpet, the process is over.
When we finish the number of wires, we connect the end of our warp wire to the warp power and finish the warp solving work. We move our warp loom very carefully and bring it to the carpet weaving position. After that, we will do the necessary procedures to weave carpets or have them done. Thus, our loom and warp become ready for production.
Tools and Equipment Used in Warping
Tools and equipment used in warp preparation can be grouped as follows: Warp tools, warp iron, and warp cabinet.
- Warp Tools
It is a simple rectangular tool prepared in the form of a frame, around which stakes are driven. It consists of two iron pipes, one meter long, one fixed on a plank of at least 5 m length and the other one can be moved by inserting them into holes on the plank.
- Warp iron
The warp iron consists of an 8-meter long horizontal iron bar and two 1 meter long iron bars. One of the 1-meter iron bars is mounted at the head of the horizontal iron bar and this bar is fixed. On the other 1 meter bar, it is mounted on the other side of the horizontal bar so that it can be moved with iron screws. The reason for moving is to be able to adjust the warp thread according to the size of the carpet to be woven.
- Warp cabinet
The warp cabinet consists of two rectangles made of thick laths that can interlock. These cabinets can rotate around an axis that is passed through the point where the short edges intersect, and one end is attached to the ceiling and the other to the floor. There are nails that are used to pass the warp wires on the long edges.
Places Where Warping Tools Are Used
It is a simple rectangular tool prepared in the form of a frame, around which stakes are driven. A tool that prepares the warp for the loom by winding the warp yarn around the piles until the desired length is obtained and then cutting it from one or both ends. This type of warp tool is used in school environments. Because it does not take up much space.
It consists of two iron pipes, one meter long, one fixed on a plank of at least 5 m length and the other one can be moved by inserting them into holes on the plank. Depending on the length of the fabric, it is possible to lengthen and shorten the distance between the bars with a movable pipe. It is used to set the desired distance in weaving.
It is used for warping in carpet weaving workshops. The fact that one side of the warp iron can move ensures that the length of the carpet is in the desired size. Warp cabinets are used in large workshops to prepare warps for weaving looms.
Tools used in warp preparation should be cleaned regularly. The broken parts of the wooden warp tools should be repaired and sanded. The broken parts of the warp iron should be repaired and the moving part should be oiled regularly. The warp cabinet should also be cleaned regularly, the iron parts should be oiled and the broken parts should be repaired.
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