Carpets of World: Persian, Turkish, Caucasian, and Nepalese Carpets



Carpets are not an ordinary object, only for decorative or warming purposes. It is also part of the culture. The peoples of the ancient world not only used the carpet for warmth but also added value to it. Now, with the development of technology, manual labor has left its place to machine production. Thus, a wide variety of carpet patterns and carpet types are produced. Now it is possible to reach a wide variety of carpet models and quality in the market. So, do you know which carpets have the most deep-rooted culture in the world? In this article, I will tell you the story of the carpets of the world.



Carpets of the world can be classified as Persian, Turkish, Caucasian, and Nepalese Carpets in the most basic classification. The first carpet weaving was made by the Turks because the oldest known carpet in the world (Pazyryk Carpet) was woven with the Turkish double knot. Persian rugs are one of the most famous carpets in the world. This is because of the very high-quality materials used and the exquisite workmanship. Nepal’s distinctive carpets have an interesting style. Caucasian carpets have also made important contributions to carpet culture. Let’s examine the carpets of the world together.

Carpets of World: Persian Carpets


Persian rugs are quality carpets made using woolen yarn and silk and colored with vegetable dyes, mostly woven with Iranian and Turkish knot techniques. Carpet comes to mind when the mention of countries are Turkey and Iran. Because the first examples of the carpet, which is among the most famous handicrafts in the world, are the original hand-made carpets created by the people of this society, created with their own techniques, woven with unbelievable craftsmanship, and colored with madder colors that exhibit an incredible harmony. Iran is a developed country in terms of handicrafts.

Persian rugs are world-famous for their rich colors, extraordinary artistic patterns, and quality designs. The Persian carpet, which is declared in important buildings, museums, and mansions all over the world, is regarded as the most valued property. Especially carpet weaving is far ahead of pottery and jewelry production. Handcrafted carpets of Iran, which started to take an important place in the 19th century, are world-famous.



Carpets and rugs decorated with traditional motifs are woven. Although the auto industry has been established, it is not yet at a level to meet the country’s needs. n fact, the majority and the best are Turkish rugs, in other words, woven by Turkic peoples such as Azeri, Turkmen, and Kaskay in Iran. Node style is different from the carpets woven in Turkey. The weaving style called Persian knot or Persian knot is looser and weaker in terms of quality and durability than the weaving style referred to as Gördes knot or Turkish knot.

Pazyryk, the oldest known wool carpet, is a testament to the advanced dyeing and weaving industry in ancient Iran. Since it is a Persian rug, it is a carpet that mainly carries Persian patterns and motifs. The dye in carpet weaving has an important place in the weaving industry. Traditional paints are madder, indigo, turmeric, red beetle, walnut, pomegranate peel, etc. It is produced from various herbs and herbs. Today, traditional natural dyes are gradually being replaced by artificial chemical dyes, which are generally imported.



The existence of colors in human life is a result of their integration with nature. However, oriental colors express the emotions of people and are a kind of reflex against external factors/tensions. At certain ages, Persians developed colors as a powerful expression in decorative arts. Undoubtedly, the Persians’ subjective and mystical thoughts contributed greatly to the development of the use of colors in traditional ceramic, miniature, and tile arts.

Types of Persian Carpets


Carpet making in Iran starts with the Seljuk Turks. There are no old examples of Persian carpets, only carpet patterns can be found in miniatures of the 14th and 15th centuries AD. Persian carpet weaving started to gain features after the 16 century. Its heyday was after these dates. During this period, carpets were made for and attached to the palace. Since the 19th century, with the establishment of good trade organizations, Iran has made it the first carpet exporter in the world carpet trade.

Persian carpet art reached its peak in the Safavid period in the 16th century. The fact that the first concrete evidence of this art belongs to this period confirms this information. Approximately 1500 examples of this period are preserved in museums and private collections around the world. During the reign of Shah Abbas, advances were made in trade and arts.

Shah Abbas has developed trade by supporting relations with Europe and at the same time transformed the capital Isfahan into a magnificent city. Apart from these, he established a royal workshop for carpets, where he encouraged skilled craftsmen and designers to create magnificent examples.



Silk was used in most of the carpets woven in that period. Many experts believe that these carpets represent the highest level in carpet design. Shah Abbas also developed the use of gold and silver thread in carpets. One of the carpets produced by this method and used in the coronation ceremony, carpet is preserved today at Rosenburg Castle in Copenhagen. This special piece has a velvety finish and a glowing gold bottom. Of course, these rugs were woven exclusively for royals and nobility and are as tightly preserved as any gold treasure.

  • Kesan Carpets

Kesan is located in Central Iran. It is one of the most beautiful and precious carpets in Iran. It is shiny and soft like velvet, finely worked. There are 10-14 knots per centimeter. Patterns filled with dark colors are usually used. Silk was also used in the knots. Depending on the proportions of these knots, gold and silver glazes are found. Gold and silver glazes are also used in Isfahan carpets. The main composition of Keşan carpets is also medallions. Like Tabriz carpets, these medallions were made to mark the middle of the floor.

  • Isfahan Carpets

In the 17th century, various carpets were woven in Isfahan, the center of Iran, by the Shah of Iran, Shah Abbasi. This was partly due to the efforts of the workshops established by Shah Abbas I. However, this period did not last long, and it broke up in a short time after the death of Shah Abbas. It was understood that these carpets, which were included in the literature as Polish carpets under a general harmony for a long time, were woven in Iran, this name was corrected and the name of Shah Abbas period Isfahan carpets was placed as the most correct name.

Since they are made on a custom made, the Polish family and the coats of arms of various European countries are also found on them. Isfahan rugs, which stand out due to their particular view and composition in terms of their technical design and composition features, take place in an eclectic style. Therefore, it is difficult to group Isfahan rugs. It shows various regional features as well, as it is handcrafted by various masters.



  • Kirman Carpets

Kirman is a carpet center in the southeast of Iran. When lamb’s wool is always used, it is long, fluffy, durable, soft, and very firm to the touch. The pattern is very complex and completely Eastern and Iranian. Due to the fact that it shows with a certain composition, it will be considered and examined as a separate feature. These show differences in terms of technical pattern, color, and composition properties. In the carpets woven in a cine knot, only wool, silk, gold-silver thread, were used.

Even though the Shot and Wraps are made of wool, sometimes cotton is also used. The curbs are very narrow. The main border is added to the floor in the width of the secondary border we see in other carpets. Therefore, when two carpets are placed side by side, the samples seem to continue over each other. These carpets are the main element in the Kirman carpets, in terms of composition, of the carpets that are not depicted in the paintings and miniatures of European painters.

  • Herat Carpets

It is tightly knit long and narrow. Its rope is thin. The wool used in them is soft. Its touch is soft and its wool is shiny. Pictures in the form of dates, fish, or pears constitute the majority. The color of the floor is red or dark blue. Generally, it has a floor with large inscriptions and pictures and pictures of dates and flowers. The winning color is black with light pink and blue. It is famous for its centuries-old antiques.

  • Garden Persian Carpets

In these rugs, where large garden forms are given, sometimes a throne scene is placed in certain corners of the carpet. Grounds are divided into wide channels in the middle of a middle axis, in small pools where they intersect, and rectangular fields that cut each other vertically are formed, then each rectangular field is divided by smaller arcs between themselves. It is depicted in the garden where the carpet is given a garden form. It is understood that it was built with a mosaic meticulousness.



Persian carpets with a garden are rugs in which fish, ducks, and various aquatic animals are depicted, indicating the movement and rippling of the knotted and beautiful gardens. Segmented canals and small arches in the gardens were taken in a realistic understanding. The region where this type of carpets are made is sometimes specified as a geometric shape that is stylized with the figures in northwest Iran, and all of them are channels and arcs integrated into its composition.

  • Portuguese Carpets

It is understood that these carpets were woven in Iran and sent to Portugal. There were various descriptions in the compositions on the carpets that would make this name different. These rugs are also similar to Persian rugs. The figure depictions in the remaining parts are completely foreign. We can list these features as follows.

There is a back depiction in the upper left corner after the outer medallion with an indented protrusion forming the middle of the carpet. These ships carry Portuguese coats of arms as can be seen from the flags in their middle. It is similar to the galleys of that period, whose two ends are defined as head to head. The folds in the roof form of Uyghurs’ home architecture later affect the Ottoman galleys.

The Importance of Persian Carpets in the World


The legendary Persian carpet has gained a lasting reputation ahead of the industries specific to the national and ethnic structures of other countries in the world, and this fame has even become popular in the eastern world known as the continent where legends were born. Considered as the most important decorative element of international museums in human history and the greatest source of pride, carpets are works by unique masters raised by the Iranian nation.



These works, which are weaved patiently and carefully and produced with great effort by graceful thin fingers, each of which is callus and full of skill, will continue to be a source of pride for the Iranian nation in the future. Most of the annual carpet production consists of carpets with a maximum of 35 knots per cm2 and are met with an intense demand both domestically and abroad. XIX. Establishing good trade organizations since the 19th century has made Iran the first carpet exporter country in the world carpet trade. Iranian carpet weaving continues today. The world watches and evaluates Iranian rugs.

Carpets of World: Turkish Carpets


Those who claim that the first carpet weaving was made by Turks, start from the fact that the oldest known carpet in the world (Pazyryk Carpet) was woven with a Turkish double knot. They state that the homeland of carpet weaving is Turks, that the history of Turkish carpet weaving goes back 2500 years, and that the Turks moved carpet from Central Asia to Anatolia. Therefore, it is said that handicraft carpets are historically one of the handicrafts of Turks.

The domestication of some animals towards the end of the Neolithic period led to the conclusion that woolen weaving was the beginning. It is estimated that the first spinning was made by grinding the fibers between two hands. Later, it is understood that this work was done by rubbing a semi-round stone on the knee. In the excavations carried out in Turkistan in Central Asia, many spindle whorls of different sizes and weights made of clay, stone, and bone were found in the Neolithic age levels.



The first Turkish homeland, Central Asia (especially East and West Turkistan, where fertile fields are located), is one of the most important centers of world civilization history. Rugs found in ancient Turkish cities such as Turfan, Kara Hoça, Hotan and Turkistan, and Horasan provide precise information about the style and technique used in Turkish carpet art. When the Central Asian Turkish carpet technique is examined, we encounter two separate systems. One is a very simple shape made with a weft and the main technique is knotted weaving.

We can follow Turkish carpet weaving with the same features in Anatolia, which has a very deep-rooted past that can be followed from various sources of the homeland to the Mongols. Turks, who used the oldest weaving raw materials, wool, linen, silk, and cotton in carpet weaving with great skill in their first dormitories, raised this art, which was an ancestral profession, to the highest level with the Seljuks in Anatolia.

With the discovery of colorful tapestries on the temple walls, which can be dated to 6000 BC during the Çatal Höyük excavations, it is seen that it is the most typical example of Anatolia in the Neolithic period as it is now. And again, as can be seen from all these points, it is thought that dyeing was also known in that period. No matter where the Turks went to the world, they continued the carpet weaving technique, which is a cultural element, by transferring it from mother to daughter like a flowing river.

Carpet Art in Turkish History


Within the framework of history, the carpet was a daily item on which the Turks sat on the floor to keep the inside of their tents warm, prayed on it, or adorned the walls, but over time it became a true work of art as an expression of our culture. When it comes to carpets, the first thing that comes to mind all over the world is the “transhumance Turks”. The sheep and goats that surround all of Asia, especially in the northern regions, from which wool, the raw material of the carpet, were obtained, were most probably domesticated by the Turks, who were the characteristic nomads of these steppe lands.



The oldest known carpet in history is the “Pazyryk Carpet” unearthed by the archaeologist Rudenko in the Pazyryk area of ​​the Altai mountains. The Pazyryk Carpet, which was unearthed from the glaciers in the fifth kurgan, one of the eight kurgans opened in the region, is the oldest known carpet in the world. The Pazyryk Carpet, which attracts attention all over the world with its richness of motifs, incredible fineness, and weaving features, was first published in 1953 and aroused great interest.

The carpet is 1.89 x 2 m in size and made of very fine wool, with 36.000 Gördes knots in 10cm2, it is an incredible and untouched masterpiece. The carpet shows a wide border from the cavalry figure, the second wide border of deer figures, an inner and an outer narrow border of griffons, 24 squares of cross-like flowers on the floor, and a checkerboard with white, yellow, and blue colors on a red background.

Although the Pazyryk rug is still controversial chronologically; The finding of a dead horse and cart next to the carpet, the burial of the dead with tattoos and mummified kurgan, the burial customs, and the findings from other kurgans are dated to the Huns of Asia and to the 3rd century BC. Some 45 years before archaeologist Rudenko discovered the Pazyryk carpet, Hungarian-English archaeologist Aurel Stein, known for his discoveries in Central Asia, found knotted carpet fragments from the 3rd and 4th centuries in Lou-Lan, west of East Turkistan’s Lop lake.

These pieces exhibited in the British Museum and New Delhi Museum in India; It was made of threads spun from thick, hard, and undyed wool. In some of its pieces, there were vibrant and bright colored lozenges, stripes, and patterned motifs made of very stylized flowers, consisting of three kinds of yellow, dark blue, red, matte green, and brown.



A few years later, another archaeologist found a 16 x 26 cm engraved figure, again twisted from hard and thick unpainted wool, resembling a yellow dragon’s tail with black contours on a red background, west of Kucha. This piece is now in the Berlin Museum of Islamic Art and dates to the 5th to 6th centuries.

During the Abbasid period, weaving had become a cultural tradition brought to the west from Central Asia with the Turks. Later, with the domination of the Seljuk Turks, it first spread to the Islamic geography and then to other geographies. Two carpet pieces made up of knots tied with short wool threads lined by Lamm on the single knuckles found in Fustat (old Cairo) resemble the technique of carpets in East Turkestan. One of them consists of dark blue, green, and buff colors on a red-brown background; shows an example of nested hexagonal stars.

The other piece is thought to belong to the Abbasid period. One of the two pieces with Kufic inscriptions found in the Cairo Arab Museum is dated to 818. The third piece with the kufi inscription is on display at the Washington Textile Museum. In addition to these examples, other found pieces are in the New York Metropolitan Museum. It can be said that these pieces, which are similar to the samples found in East Turkistan in terms of knot and processing technique, were created under the influence of the Turks.

With the conquest of Anatolia, the belief, culture, and art of the Turks entered these lands with them. There are no examples of carpets or rugs from the Great Seljuk, but; Konya Seljuk rugs, which reached us from the beginning of the 13th century, can be regarded as a continuation of the Great Seljuk. Until the explorer Martin discovered the Seljuk carpets in Konya Alaeddin Mosque in 1905, these carpets did not attract anyone’s attention. Martin published these rugs in 1908 in A History of Oriental Carpets Before 1800 (Vienna, 1908), which he composed in two volumes – one half a meter in length, one made up of text and the other of plates.



These large, characteristic rugs with dimensions of 5-6 meters; Large and vertical kufi scripts were decorated with plant motifs blended with geometric patterns, thus becoming works reflecting the most monumental examples of the Seljuk period. There are no figures on these carpets as they were made for the mosque.

Until recent years, it was not known that the animal figure was used in Seljuk carpets, a carpet purchased in the name of the New York Metropolitan Museum in 1990 destroyed all known facts. It was known that this rug was brought from a Buddhist temple destroyed by the Chinese in Tibet. With this carpet, four different carpets were discovered in Tibet. When the type, weaving technique, and colors of the wool used in the carpets were examined, it was seen that it had the same characteristics as other Anatolian Seljuk carpets. Technical analysis has shown that some of these dates from the 13th or even 12th century.

It is seen that these carpets with animal figures from the Seljuk period underwent a re-development phase as animal figure carpets in the 14th century. It is known that these carpets were used as decorative in the paintings of European painters, especially Italians. These characteristic lines and motifs used in Anatolian animal figured carpets continue throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, but then it disappears.

Beginning after the 1451 Fatih period, the geometric and characteristic features of Anatolian carpets are almost destroyed. The effects of excessively styled geometrical plant motif compositions and exaggerated patterns were evident in carpets throughout the 16th century. Rugs of this style were called Holbein rugs. The reason for this name is; It was that the German painter Holbein painted the carpets in his paintings.

Carpets of World: Caucasian Carpets


The common culture of approximately 350 tribes living in the Caucasus region, which extends from the west of the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea coast and includes a part of Iran in the south, is carpet weaving. The Caucasus, which is rich in ethnography and has great geography, is divided into three major regions:

  • Dagestan region
  • Shirvan region
  • Trans – Caucasian region

The main weaving regions in the Caucasus are:

  • Sumac
  • Talish
  • Shirvan
  • Dagestan
  • Lesghian
  • Chichi (Chechen)
  • Kazakh
  • Ganja


In the 17th and 18th century in the east of the northern territory of Iran and Turkey (the Caucasus region), carpet weaving has gained importance. Almost every town, from Eastern Anatolia to the Caspian Sea, has started to weave carpets with their own characteristics. Although carpet weaving, which is very common in the Caucasus, was first influenced by Iran, then a unique Caucasian style was formed with the interpretation of local elements.

Four-legged animal figures, geometric shapes, and dragon figures are the main motifs used in these rugs. Let’s examine the regions that gain the most important in carpet weaving from the Caucasian carpet weaving regions.

  • Dagestan Rugs

Dagestan means the land of mountains. It is the name of a mountainous region in the northeast of the Caucasus. Derbend city is located. 19th century rugs in these areas are small. Generally, an 8-pointed star medallion, called the lattice pattern or Lesgi star, is used on the entire surface of the carpet. In the carpets of the region, symmetrical knots are tied on the wool warp. Scarves are wool and cotton.

Dagestan has been famous for its original, vibrantly colored rugs since ancient times. Historians living in the 2000s and 1000s have mentioned rugs for the first time. Dagestan’s high quality, beautiful, robust carpets, and rugs have enabled the East and West to reach the largest carpet trade volume.

  • Kazakh Rugs

It is a borderless region in the south of the Caucasus, north of the Aras River, which includes Tilflis and Yerevan, and south of the Kura River. Carpet art has a special place in the Turkish world in general and in Kazakhstan in particular. Especially in the regions of Kazakhstan located by Uzbekistan, there is a rich culture of Kirkit weaving arts dating back to the past. The regions of Shymkent and Kizilara, especially Turkistan, are in a central position in this regard.



It is known that in the past, Kamf looms were generally used and that these looms produced carpets, rugs, sumac, and chichi type Kirkit fabrics. There is still a wide cultural life that indicates that their products are traditionally used as mat and decoration materials.

With the conquest of the region of Turkestan and Kizilar in the hands of the Russians after 23 days of very hard wars in 1853, traditional production methods of handicraft products (carpet, rug, sumac weaving) were started to be directed by the state. In this context, with the production of carpet weaving in workshops, traditional weaving techniques were also intervened.

The old original weaving technique was broken and a new weaving technique application was started, which negatively affected the quality. This new practice has been expanded through the courses offered by the state. As a result, the art of carpet weaving, which is a Central Asian Turkish culture, has been removed from its original.

Carpets of World: Nepalese Carpets


These simple carpet models and prices, which have an impressive result on people with their extremely nice motifs, continue to bring the culture of the Far East here in the best way. If you ask what Nepal carpet is, you will see that there are simple but nice models here. At the same time, these enormous options, which are evaluated together with quality materials, are of high quality and provide you with assistance at the easy shopping point with appropriate options.

It is important to examine the cultural structure of the whole world in terms of soft, comfortable, and long-lasting carpet models. Nepal carpet models, which come here from the Far East as a wealth, have to create a good chance and an important opportunity for customers with their rich price list and alternatives. Nepal carpet models, which have an extremely sensitive structure and show their motifs in the best way, should be carefully wiped when a stain occurs.

Wiping with a cloth, especially with the application of cold detergent, may cause the stain to disappear. For long-term use, of course, more important studies are carried out on washing techniques. However, the ability of women in deleting really continues to support this issue. When we say what a Nepal carpet is, we really come across a significant cultural heritage. These enormous carpet options, which came from the Far East and have been met, must be carefully wiped and cleaned.



In the meantime, the preference of match colors together with plain and remarkable patterns appears to be a determinant. When we say what a Nepal carpet is, it is of course essential to understand how it is understood first. Creating a real culture with Nepal carpets reflect the quality of the yarn used and, really has seen a significant response in the world. Representing the modern image with its pleasant and impressive structure, these magnificent carpet models adorn your home and continue to add color with their shine.

Cleaning at home can give a simpler and more positive result. However, the methods you use are of course important to clean stains that seem difficult to remove. With its quality yarn and healthy material, Nepal carpet can be easily wiped and cleaned like other carpets.

When we say what is Nepal carpet, we actually see the result of a multifaceted culture here. With this quality carpet option, which is easy to clean and advantageous to use, you can make your living space much more spectacular. A people, who live in very high geography and spend their time with cultural weight, send you a quality carpet and create an opportunity for you to evaluate. Along with the carpet models that reflect the culture in the best way, the production in the world reveals very capable results.

Best World Carpets That You Can Buy Online












Savaş Ateş

I'm a software engineer. I like history and reading about carpets. I like to play soccer too :)

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