Classification of Carpets: Carpet Types

It is undoubtedly the carpet that makes a person’s home look beautiful among the household items. The type of carpet is very important for a house to look beautiful. The carpets are quite diverse. There are many carpet types include Nepal carpets, Silk carpets, Iranian carpets, Shaggy carpets, Hereke carpets and a number of other hand-woven carpets. These carpets are different from each other and each has a distinctive feature.

Carpet types differ depending on the product’s number of stitches, yarn type, dimensions, function, color, and durability. You can browse models with different styles such as modern cut, shaggy, fluffy, Persian, and vintage. You can choose products that will give your bathrooms and kitchens a new look. You can purchase the motif carpets decorated with structures such as the Eiffel Tower, pictures such as cars, flowers, dolls and cartoon characters in the children’s rooms. You can visually diversify your home with machine-woven and hand-woven products that you can choose according to your budget. You can choose products from famous brands among the round, asymmetrical, classic, patchwork and plush carpet models.

The choice of carpet color is as important as the model choice. Light-colored carpets such as beige, white and cream are ideal for making small areas look more spacious and large. Dark-tone models such as brown, blue and gray, which are compatible with your furniture, add a more serious atmosphere to your living environment. Light colors such as green, blue and yellow give peace to your rooms. It is also of special importance in which room you will use the carpet you intend to buy when choosing colors and patterns. In rooms that get dirty more quickly, such as kitchens and living rooms, you can choose dark-tone carpets. It will be more appropriate to choose light-colored products in the less used places and other rooms. You can easily buy the carpets that fit your style and budget by examining the carpet models in detail with online shopping.

Carpet Types by Production Styles

Machine Woven Carpet

Machine carpet, also known as machine weaving, is weaving carpets on computer-operated electric weaving looms. Machine-made rugs made it possible to produce a wide range of sizes, colors, and different yarns. Also, with machine weaving, popular hand-woven carpet patterns can be produced at much more affordable prices.

In parallel with the technology, the differences between handmade and machine-made carpet are decreasing with the development of production techniques. While the word carpet originally described handmade carpets in the past, now it means both handmade and machine-made carpets. Handmade carpets, usually made of wool or other natural fibers, are the reference point of the carpet industry. However, advances in technology have made possible complex designs, machine carpets (using natural or synthetic fibers) that were once impossible for handmade carpets. Today, machine-made carpet manufacturers produce very high-quality carpets using machines.

For machine-made carpet weaving, the warp woven from cotton or jute yarn is stretched to the loom, and then it is woven using polyester, bamboo, polypropylene, acrylic, wool or other materials. The type of yarn used in carpets determines its appearance and performance. Natural yarns used in both handmade and machine-made carpets provide softness, bright colors, long-term performance, and other visual features. Artificial fiber is used only in machine-made carpets. Artificial fibers provide brilliant colors, softness, superior value and are easy to maintain. Artificial fiber carpets are not porous, machine carpets made of artificial fiber are resistant to staining and abrasion.

The following yarns are used in machine-woven carpets:

  • Polypropylene – It is known for its moisture resistance and wool-like texture. It becomes felting over time. It is economical.
  • Polyamide – Flexible, can withstand heavy traffic and furniture weight. Stain-resistant and easy to clean. It offers an unlimited variety of bright colors.
  • Wool – is the most favorable of natural fibers. It offers a natural and soft texture. It gets soft, saturated and beautiful colors when painted.
  • Polyester – It offers velvety softness and luster when weaved with cut pile.
  • Acrylic – Acrylic fiber offers the appearance of wool at a lower cost. Sometimes it is blended with other fibers. It is the most preferred carpet material in the world.

  • Cotton – A natural fiber with excellent durability and water absorbency. It attracts attention with its softness. It is available in many colors. It is frequently used in bathroom carpets.
  • Endless Filament (BCF) – Synthetic yarns processed by a mechanical method emboss them before combing or weaving.
  • Bamboo- It is a natural thread that has been popular recently. The carpets that are weaved with it have a bright and cool texture.
  • Artificial Silk – It is generally a synthetic fiber such as viscose. Mercerized cotton can give the same feeling. Artificial silk, also called art yarn, is used to emphasize carpets with a short, dense weaving structure.
  • Blends – There may be blends of any of the above fibers.

Modern carpet weaving machines operated by computers can produce carpets of various sizes and colors from a predetermined design. Once the design and colors are determined, a computer card tells the computer what size and color machine rug to produce. The biggest change in machine-made carpets has been in the field of the number of colors. The color palette for machine-made carpets is very wide, more than 40 shades can be obtained in a single carpet model using cross weaving or smart yarn techniques!

Machine-made carpet prices depend on several factors: Weaving frequency, yarn type, and size. Machine-made carpets are generally cheaper than the price of handmade carpets, and carpets made of artificial fibers are normally cheaper than natural fibers.

Another difference between handmade or hand-knotted carpets and machine-made carpets is that machine carpets are not actually knotted. In the case of machine-made carpet, the fibers are placed in place by a machine and then fixed with latex support. This process also gives the carpet a non-slip feature and creates a grid look on the back of the carpet.

Carpet performance is also determined by the frequency of weaving. The higher the frequency (the more nodes, the fiber) means your carpet will look better. As in hand-woven carpets, creating more loops in the same area offers better carpet density and a better quality image. Machine carpets can be woven up to 3 million / m2 nowadays, which is even more than the finest woven Hereke carpets.

Hand Woven Carpet

Although there are different techniques today, classical hand made carpets are woven on looms. The carpet bench is made of beech wood, the bottom of which sits on the ground and the upper part can move. On the loom, there are wool or cotton threads tightly stretched from top to bottom. These are called warps. A wooden wand called “trolley” is placed between the warps and space is created between the threads. Threads that are transversely passed through these warps, leaving one thread in the front and the other in the back, are called wefts. A comb called “loom reed” is used to push and tighten the weft threads while weaving them. The carpets can be woven plain or patterned. A scaled colored pattern paper is used for patterned carpets. The larger the width of the carpet to be woven, the harder the weaving process. Sometimes a few weavers are lined up in front of the loom, and they start weaving by knotting a certain part of each.

The yarn materials used and the frequency of weaving determine the quality of a handloom. Cotton is used for warping as it is generally flexible. Materials such as wool, silk, and bamboo, which are popular today, are used for the knitting of the carpet. Again, the frequency of weaving is the number of stitches per cm2 of the carpet. The higher the number of stitches, the softer the texture of the carpet. The weaving frequency is equivalent to the screen resolution in the digital world. The higher the weaving frequency of a carpet, the more precise the patterns on it. Double Turkish knot, also called Gördes knot, or single Iran knot is used in hand-woven carpets. In the Turkish knot, the thread is tied to the warp pair at the back and then at the front. In the Iran knot, the thread is threaded through a single warp thread. Hand-woven rugs are also woven with plain weaving without stitching.

Hand made carpet which takes serious labor and time to weave, has been woven in more oriental patterns in the past. Hand made carpet models also got their share from the rapidly changing fashion. Today, plain color and low pattern hand-woven carpet models are preferred.

Some of the types of both old and new carpets in handwoven carpet collections include:

  • Patchwork Rugs,
  • Anatolian Rugs,
  • Vintage carpets,
  • Persian Carpets,
  • Rug Patchworks,
  • And handwoven wool carpets.

Handwoven carpet prices are higher than other carpets due to the fact that the yarns used are manufactured from natural materials and their production is really hard and time-consuming.

Printed Carpet

The pattern is transferred on a plain-woven thick fabric directly or by the transfer method. The colors are fixed with heat and non-slip application is made on the base. Sometimes a 2nd fabric is laminated as a base. It is very popular lately.

Carpet Types by Weaving Type

The subjects such as the pile height of the carpets, whether the loops on their surfaces are cut or the frequency of the loops are closely related to the weaving type of the carpet.

  • Curl Loop Carpet (Loop Pile)

They are carpet types woven by needling method in yarns such as polypropylene, soft nylon or polyamide. The most important feature of these carpets is that they are round pile.

The carpet’s surface weaving is not cut. They look aesthetically because they have symmetrical sequences of stitches. There are varieties such as plain curls, patterned curls, scroll curls, and printed curls. After weaving the loop pile carpets, their soles are covered with a latex or textile base. The disadvantage of these carpets is that they are quickly unstitched due to the round pile. However, since they are very durable, they can be preferred especially in living areas where there is heavy traffic such as kitchens and doorways.

  • Tufting Carpet (Cut Pile)

Polyamide, polyester, acrylic, wool yarns are the types of carpet weaving with the needling method. Unlike curl carpet weaving, after the needle sticks to the surface it touches, the threads are cut with machine knives. Thus, a soft surface is formed. The floors of tufting carpets are covered with latex and derivative materials to keep the cut loops stable. Today, this type of carpet is very common. Plush, Shaggy and 3D / textured carpets that have become widespread recently are produced with this technology.

Highlights of the tufting carpet:

  1. The pile length of carpets woven in this way is generally short. The reason for this is to emphasize the pattern.
  2. Tufting carpets can be easily cleaned.
  3. It reinforces the feeling of comfort and warmth.
  • Relief Carpet (Cut & Loop)

Relief carpets are formed by cutting some of the pile surfaces woven in the machine and leaving the others uncut. They have a soft and textured surface. The most important reason why it keeps its softness and looks hairy for a long time is that some loops are longer and others are shorter. Although the long ones are deformed over time, they can remain as new as the first day since the short wefts are not pressed.

The advantages of this type of weaving:

  1. Warm passages can be created with different shades of a color.
  2. You can add movement to space with a carpet with a textured surface.
  3. Thanks to the colorful surface, you can easily hide dirt and stains.

Carpet Types by Fibers Used

It is important with which fiber or yarn type the carpet is woven. You can decide which carpet to choose according to the conditions of use in living spaces.

  • Nylon

Nylon is one of the most durable fibers of our time. You can choose a carpet made of nylon fiber, especially if you aim to use it for a long time. Nylon is a synthetic material. For this reason, it is both stain-free and very practical to clean. Also available in many varieties and colors.

Featured pros:

  1. Durable.
  2. Resistant to abrasion.
  3. Resistant to deterioration caused by chemicals and oils.
  4. Many color options are available.
  5. Moisture absorption is low.
  • Soft Nylon

Also known as acrylic fiber. It is similar in appearance and texture to wool, which we do not prefer due to the maintenance conditions and cost from time to time. One of the prominent registered brands of this fiber is Anso. Just like nylon carpets, Anso carpets are durable and do not stain easily. In addition, soft nylon fibers such as Anso, Caress may have antibacterial and antiallergic properties.

  • Olefin / Polypropylene

One of the most preferred among carpet types is olefin. Olefin is a strong, aesthetic and highly economical synthetic fiber. The most common carpets made from olefin are boucle carpets. Olefin is a durable material. But it keeps dust and dirt like a magnet. In this regard, it is difficult to clean. Olefin is best suited for outdoor use. For example, artificial grass is made of this material and can be used for many years. Wall to wall carpets, where olefin is effectively preferred, is ideal for office environments.

Pros of olefin:

  1. It is not easily worn.
  2. There are many types of colors, patterns, and textures.
  3. It dries very easily.
  4. It is anti-static.
  5. It is resistant to moisture and sun rays.
  6. It is light.

  • Polyester (P.E.T.)

This fiber, which is also obtained from recycled materials, is one of the most popular fibers today. Its softness is really impressive. However, its elasticity is very little and it is difficult to clean. It may lose its original appearance very quickly, especially in living areas with high traffic. While buying a polyester carpet, it is very impressive with its texture and appearance, but it is useful to know that this appearance will deteriorate soon. Since both costs and prices are very economical, it is not easy to maintain the polyester, which is often preferred.

Pros of polyester carpets:

  1. Durable.
  2. It does not shrink when washed.
  3. It dries quickly.
  4. Moisture resistant.
  5. Resistant to abrasion.
  • Smartstrand

Smartstrand, also known as Sorona, which is the invention of Dupont and obtained from corn, is considered a new fiber. Rugs made from this material are known for their durability and stain-resistant properties. However, it is still a bit behind nylon fiber in terms of durability.

  • Wool

It is the best quality fiber. Wool fiber, almost as old as human history, is not as resistant to moisture as synthetic fibers. It can also stain very quickly. However, it is easy to clean.

You can use a woolen carpet for many years in accordance with the carpet washing instructions. When the pile height is maintained, it does not wear easily. In addition, wool carpets are valued as they age. Wool fiber, where you can find natural color options, is perhaps a less useful but high-quality material.

  • Acrylic

Acrylic is a synthetic imitation of wool. Although it is slightly brighter (because the raw white color is very white, compared to a more creamy white) and slightly smoother than wool when touched, it is very similar to wool.

Advantages of acrylic: It looks much more convenient and almost identical compared to wool. The colors are brighter and less shedding compared to wool, making it a good choice for allergic people and/or children. You will get brighter pink/blue/yellow/green colors to better suit child-centered designs.

Cons: This is synthetic and some people prefer the natural option. Also, since it is mainly made of plastic polymers, it can burn (compared to naturally fire-resistant wool), i.e. the flame will continue to burn; this is not suitable for areas where people smoke or near open flames, such as fireplaces. When quenched, it basically melts (compared to charred wool). Therefore, it is not the choice for hotels or places with fire safety requirements.

  • Bamboo

Bamboo Carpet is also called bamboo silk carpet due to its softness and brightness. Bamboo carpets are woven from bamboo fiber, which is a natural fiber. Bamboo is a plant that grows in tropical regions and grows in a very short time. When the plant reaches maturity, its stem is turned into a pulp by wetting it. By spinning from this pulp, bamboo yarn is obtained. Carpets are obtained from bamboo yarn are usually produced by machine weaving.

The bamboo yarn has a natural sheen and creates a feeling of coolness. Due to its brightness, additional treatments such as mercerization and finishing are not required after weaving. Therefore, bamboo rugs have a very similar texture and appearance to real silk rugs. Carpets produced from this yarn have natural antibacterial properties. Therefore, it can be preferred for baby room and nursery and for those who are allergic to dust. Since bamboo is a light thread, weaved carpets are medium-thin and light. The bamboo carpet models, which are produced from the bamboo fiber with very good absorption features, look rich and saturated in color. It feels cool when pressed on it with bare feet, helps to remove negative electricity from your body. Due to this feature, bamboo runners can be used in bedrooms. It has high resistance against sunlight. Even if it is used for a long time in rooms with a lot of sunlight, its color will not fade.

Complementary to your decoration, these carpets are useful. However, since it is produced from natural yarn, care must be taken for its maintenance. It is suitable for the living room, baby room, and doorways. They are not very suitable for places like kitchens with high traffic and the possibility of stains. In bamboo carpet models, color tones such as beige and gray are generally used. Therefore, they do not show much stain and dust. The bamboo carpet should be vacuumed weekly with a vacuum cleaner. The point to be noted here is that the yarn of the carpet is swept in the direction in which it lies. Swept in the opposite direction may cause the deformation of the image of your carpet.

For stain removal in these carpets, when the stain occurs, you must immediately intervene in the stain and buffer with a napkin that absorbs the stain without using chemicals. If you try to rub the stain formed by rubbing the spot, shading will occur in the form of the carpet. While wiping the bamboo rugs, attention should be paid to the direction in which the yarn lies, and they should be wiped in one direction.

These carpets should be washed annually in places that are handcrafted for carpet weaving. You can get suggestions from leading companies in this regard. Bamboo carpet prices are not very cheap as these carpets are produced from natural yarn. However, it is more suitable than hand-woven carpets and more expensive than machine-made carpets such as acrylic. The price is not determined by the weight, size, and frequency of weaving of the carpet. Bamboo is a sustainable ecological fiber. You can contribute to protecting your environment and the world by choosing bamboo carpets.

Carpet Types by Usage Area

It is an important issue to consider in which room the carpet you choose. Traffic density, fiber, and weaving types are important at this point.

  • Living Room Carpet

When it comes to carpet, the living room carpet comes to our mind first. The living room carpet can be hand-woven or machine-made carpet. Different civilizations in the world have woven beautiful and magnificent living room carpets over the years. The oldest carpet found belongs to the 5th century BC. Since it is one of the areas where seating activity and traffic is the most intense, a solid carpet should be chosen. Loose-textured carpets can wear out very quickly. Soft woven carpets, which have a tight texture but also feel comfortable, can be preferred. Light colors can make the place airier. On the other hand, you can easily hide stains with patterns.

  • Doorway, Stairs and Hallway Carpet

As the name implies, they are used in areas such as corridors, entrances, and kitchens. They are available in different lengths and different widths. Since it is the area with the highest traffic, a hard surface and tight texture carpet should be preferred. For practical cleaning, make sure to choose a carpet that does not show dirt and has no grooves.

  • Dining Room Carpet

Since traffic is not very busy in dining rooms, soft or loose-textured carpets can be preferred. The most important point to consider about carpet usage in the dining room is the issue of cleaning. A synthetic carpet with dark tones and synthetic fibers may be preferred against possible accidents and stains.

  • Bedroom Carpet

Bedroom carpet should offer a soft texture and comfortable use in bedrooms that are the center of comfort. It can be used as a runner set or by framing a large carpet. The comfort factor stands out in bedrooms. The very rarely used bedroom makes it possible to use the types of yarn and weaving in the luxury segment in terms of usage. Silk, flush, pure wool carpets can be used here. Also, textured and shaggy carpets can be the right choice for the bedroom.

  • Bathroom Carpet

Bath rugs are carpets that will be in constant contact with water and must have anti-slip properties. They are preferred to be washable and light. Bathroom carpets should also be synthetic. This is the first reason why artificial materials are preferred in this high humidity area. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that bathroom carpets and mats are non-slip-based and easy to clean.

  • Balcony Carpet

In fact, if we say outdoor carpets, we will use a more accurate expression. They are resistant to weather conditions and fading. These carpets are generally used as terrace, balcony and resort carpets.

  • Kitchen Carpet

The kitchen carpet should be stain resistant, non-slip and washable as it will be used in the most intense living area of the houses. There are many different sizes, including area rugs.

  • Children’s Room Carpet

Children’s room carpet, unlike other carpets, should carry some health conditions and be resistant to stains.

Carpet Types by Style

Ethnic and ecological style carpets, which have been accelerating in recent years, are accompanied by modern carpets that are indispensable for metropolitan houses and classical style carpets, which are the favorite of all time.

  • Modern Carpets

Modern carpets, which successfully carry their urban identity with their colors and textures, provide convenience to their users with practical maintenance. Patterns in which geometric forms and shapes come to the fore can sometimes show themselves in stylized patterns or staves. Modern style carpets, which are generally machine-weaved, appear this year in striking colors as well as metallic tones.

  • Ecological Carpets

Ecological carpets produced in natural fibers and non-toxic materials draw their inspiration from nature. In these carpets produced with natural materials such as wool, bamboo or recycled materials, the colors such as green, coffee, blue and pastoral motifs that we see in nature are in the foreground.

  • Classic Carpets

Classic style carpets in the hegemony of damask, shawl patterns, and floral motifs are often woven with the flush, jacquard, pure wool, and pure silk. These classic carpets, where silvery yarns are also used this year, continue to be the symbol of showiness and nobility in living spaces.

  • Ethnic Carpets

Lost borders, a shrinking world, different cultures, and different motifs… Ethnic patterns, especially oriental patterns and Far Eastern forms, add extraordinary ambiance to living spaces.

Carpet Types by Texture

  • Leather Carpet

In the previous years, it was generally used in office furniture since real leather created a heavy and prestigious atmosphere in decoration. Today, we now see leather-upholstered furniture, leather rugs, and leather-made accessories in homes. Especially in places that are decorated in an industrial or eclectic style, we often encounter them.

The use of genuine calf leather hides as a carpet in decoration dates back to the 1960s. In this period, which was the golden age of Scandinavian furniture, tanned shaggy calf skins were used as carpets under the furniture. In the years that followed, these leather carpets were used quite a lot, especially in country style furnished houses that refer to farm life. In the early 2000s, small pieces of leather were combined and patchwork leather rugs were produced. Thus, leather carpet models in different colors and patterns were obtained.

  • Patchwork Carpet

The carpets, whose hair is shaved after washing, take an aged look due to the cotton thread used in the warp of the carpet. Some of the carpets fade in the sun. Some carpets are repainted in popular colors. These carpets, which are then cut, are combined in different sequences by hand sewing. Thus, there are different patchwork carpet models. The plain color patchwork carpets are dyed, and in natural color patchwork carpets, they are the original colors of the carpet.

Patchwork hand-woven carpets, which were not that popular beforehand, go beyond their borders and become popular all over the world in a short time. In order for the product to reach wider masses, patchwork-look machinery and printed carpets are started to be produced over time. More affordable patchwork carpets were produced with these new production methods.

  • Shaggy Carpet

Shaggy carpets have officially made a comeback in decoration in the past years. Shaggy carpet models can be made from natural fibers such as wool and leather, or synthetics such as polypropylene, polyester, and acrylic. Shaggy carpets are available in modernized, machine-rug versions. A small amount of hand-woven shaggy is still produced in India.

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Savaş Ateş

I'm a software engineer. I like history and reading about carpets. I like to play soccer too :)

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