It is difficult to say that there is a clear trend in carpet color and design, and also colors and designs are tried to be created according to the demands of the buyers. But contemporary carpet and rug design also need to undergo an evolution. In the future, there will be a concept and profession called carpet design. It is already happening. Now, young designers are trained in this subject in some universities. Carpet traders and manufacturers can work with young designers instead of making their own designs, send them to exhibitions or fairs abroad, increase their manners and knowledge, and make better sales with better-designed products.
Of course, there is a master of every job, and we can say that masters of carpet design drawing are those who have developed, trained, gained experience and reached a certain level in the profession of carpet design. Carpet designers that we can designate as experts in their field know not only the patterns required and demanded by the companies but also the best way to fulfill the carpet motif, design and pattern demands of individual or corporate customers.
In accordance with the demands of individuals or institutions determined colors and patterns can be revealed in the desired style. At this stage, both creativity and experience are at the forefront. As a matter of fact, the dimensions of the carpet to be designed, the usage area and most importantly the design requested by the customer should be taken into consideration. In this way, all these criteria are successfully blended and the desired design is created.
Carpet pattern drawing process is made with technological facilities. In the past and today, carpet weaving is another craft that has attracted attention. In this craft, dexterity is as important as speed. But at this stage, it is necessary to state the difference between the two areas. As a matter of fact, carpet design drawings are realized through a computer program (software), that is, at the computer, hand carpet weaving process is performed in a physical environment as you know.
Therefore, while addressing the question of how to draw a carpet design, we need to mention the special carpet drawing programs developed in this field. These programs, as we have mentioned before, are used at the computer, which is used by the designers and provide a lot of desired patterns, motifs obtained by other traditional methods (such as hand-woven carpet patterns) can be obtained in a much easier and shorter time.
The custom carpet design is a method of carpet design that is used frequently by interior designers or experts. The customized carpet design is usually at the request of the interior architects and will complement the rest of the decoration in a better way. Individuals convey an idea inspired by existing home decorations to the designers, and upon request of the designers, the desired carpet size, frequency, materials, and patterns are designed individually. In such a case the customer becomes more satisfied. Because the result and product are exactly what they want.
Decoration consisting of lines, colors, and shapes on the surface of any object is called a pattern. The pattern on the carpet is called colored drawings of a millimeter squared papers drawn in accordance with the quality previously considered. On squared papers, each small square forms a knot on the carpet.
The motif is one of the ornament elements seen in all weaves such as carpets or rugs. They start from small squares and range from very large shapes such as medallions. Geometric Motifs consist of a line (straight, curved), hexagon, point, square, triangle, rhombus, octagon and star.
The floral motifs may consist of the following. Tree motifs; cypress, bunch willow, palm, tree of life, cypress and the symbolic tree of life represents eternal life and resurrection after death. Leaf motifs; such as vine leaves, sycamore leaves, and ivy leaves. Floral motifs; Symbolic or real images such as tulips, carnations, roses, lilies, hyacinths, flowers of various sizes, ball flowers, flower columns, flower cords. Fruit motifs; Like pomegranate, apple, and grape, cherry. Branch motifs; straight, curved and zigzag. Stem motifs; Flowers and leaves are motifs that connect branches or each other.
Animal motifs can be in the following ways. Birds; eagle representing power and power; peacocks representing beauty. Other animals; the dragon is a very symbolic scorpion, snake, deer, and gazelle. The hook symbolizes the sheep and ram. The camel on the carpets represents the wedding procession. It can also consist of mixed motifs. These are geometric, plant and animal motifs that combine motifs.
Sources of Design Preparation
- Using existing woven carpets. To remove patterns by looking at the back surface of other carpets.
- To benefit from other branches of art that can help.
- Taking advantage of sources such as photographs, brochures, and catalogs.
- Using designs in hand.
- Working on the pattern depending on the motif characteristics of the source.
- Taking advantage of the availability of previously woven carpets and their pictures.
- Looking at the pictures of carpets and motifs in the books, magazines and printed sources of the region.
- Using previously studied carpet designs.
- Using photos of carpets.
- Using slides of carpets.
- Look at the paintings and miniatures of the carpets or their paintings.
- Examining the web sites of the weaving region.
- Taking benefit from printed and virtual resources.
- Working independently; Period, independent of the pattern characters, such as the art feature of the period to work independently.
Tools Used in Design Drawing
Pencil: A pencil is a drawing and writing tool consisting of a rod placed in a wooden pipe. The pencil is the most used tool in the pattern and has the possibility to wipe it out.
Eraser: Eraser is a rubber tool which is used with a pencil to clean unnecessary and wrong lines in patterns.
Paper: Paper is a surface made of vegetable materials, which is turned into thin leaves, on which pattern and painting are studied. White, beige, black, gray or colored papers such as drawing papers, wrapping paper, duplicator paper, cartons, millimetric papers, background papers can be used in the pattern.
Dry Paint: Dry paints are colored pencils. Colored tips are obtained by mixing glue and varnish with paint material. It is a tool that provides a line to dry paint.
Felt Tip Pens: These are also known as a magic marker or fine liner. The ink, which is a mixture of dyestuff and alcohol-like liquid, allows drawing through the felt tip. It has thin, medium, thick, flat, rounded ends and various colors. It is easy to use, dries quickly and is transparent. If two colors are overlapped, a third color is created.
Watercolor: Watercolor is a kind of paint obtained in the mixture of water-soluble vegetable gums such as gum arabic. Watercolor is available in tube form or in solid form in boxes. Good quality paint is bright and clean looking. It melts quickly. The picture is transparent, clean and glittering. The technical feature of watercolor is that it is melted with water and creates a transparency effect in the picture.
Poster paint: Gouache is a kind of paint which is a mixture of glue with dye like water paint. The most important feature that is worked by melting with water is that it is concealer. In this technique, white paint is added into the color to obtain light colors and when the paint is applied, it covers the paper.
Brushes: It is a painting tool made of animal hair with a wooden handle and fixed to the metal end. The brushes are hard, soft, flat and round. A brush is necessary for the process of thinning the paint with the solvents and thinners such as water, linseed oil, turpentine suitable for the dyestuff. Techniques such as watercolor, gouache, oil paint, and acrylic are applied with brushes of various qualities.
Importance of Design on Carpet
• The element that gives carpets a national feature is their pattern character. The art, culture, and tradition of each nation’s art.
• Pattern characters arose from the synthesis of customs.
• It is the character that saves the carpet from being a simple household item and reflects its cultural accumulation.
• The differences in tradition, social and cultural differences in various regions have brought diversity to carpet art in terms of patterns.
Hand Drawing Designs
The pattern is prepared on checkered paper. Then this pattern is transferred to checkered paper with the help of a lighted table. Strokes are filled and colored on checkered paper.
Pattern borders can also be drawn directly on checkered paper without using checkered paper. The units are marked and colored. Also, the pattern drawn on the backside of the checkered paper is squared and colored by turning the paper upside down on the light table.
If the pattern in any carpet photo is to be prepared, it can also be transferred to the checkered paper by the above methods or by using tools such as overhead projector, epidiascope, magnifying glass, and loop.
For the pattern to be prepared, the size, quality, and type (report, corner, etc.) must first be determined. For a corner-by-corner design, one-quarter of the design, one half for the mihrab, and one repeat for the report (depending on the state of the pattern), it is sufficient to draw. There is usually a ratio of 2/3 (gold cut) between the width and length of a carpet. (So there is a ratio of 2/34 between width and height.)
The border width is 1/6 or 1/5 of the carpet width. In square carpets (such as 30×30, 60×60, 80×80), the number of warp wires in the sewing (longitudinal) border is equal to the number of rows of weft. In rectangular carpets (such as 30×50, 26×40, 32×40), the ratio between width and length quality is proportional to the number of wires in the sewing border and the number of rows of the border is found. Half of the bordered wire or row is divided into large borders, the remaining half is divided into small borders and mother-of-pearl and flesh.
Before you start to draw designs, some information about the carpet to be drawn must be known. Because the design will be prepared in the light of this information. The quality of the planned carpet, dimensions, number of warp, number of rows, number of warp and rows to be divided into borders, number of warp and rows to remain on the ground should be known.
In light of this information, a general outline of the pattern is prepared. The motifs intended to be used in the pattern are placed on this outline and then these motifs are measured. In this way, a measured draft is prepared. It is transferred to millimeter paper in accordance with the draft quality. It is sufficient to remove the ¼ ratio of a carpet with a classical surface partitioning. In mihrab carpets, the pattern is prepared in a ratio of 1/2.
Carpet Design Drawing Stages
Design Research: Before preparing the carpet design, a preliminary investigation of the design to be prepared must be carried out. The carpet designs used up to this day should be seen in order to make design research according to how a drawing will be made. The first step of the design preparation process is carried out by investigating the shapes and designs used in the carpet.
Motif Work: It is the process of selecting the appropriate motifs by carrying out the research process of the motifs that we will use in the original carpet design that we intend to prepare.
Pattern Design: The dimensions of the carpet we want are determined first. Then, by calculating the number of knots in the carpet, each knot will come to a square without forgetting the size of the checkered paper is prepared. The draft study is carried out by identifying the carpet pattern on the checkered paper and marking the squares they represent with a pencil. After the draft work is done, the drawings are drawn on the checkered paper.
Sketch Study: It is a free study of the placement process of the border, belly and other motifs of the carpet whose dimensions are determined.
Color Research: The pattern prepared on plain paper cannot be used in carpet weaving. Prepared designs should be colored in order to use them in carpet weaving. Since the coloration work is very technical and important, the person who will make the coloration should have sufficient accumulation in carpet art, good color knowledge, and an aesthetic view. It is recommended that people who have just begun to prepare designs or who do not have the skills described above should benefit from the previous carpets when coloring the patterns. Although the pattern designer is free to use color, there are a number of rules in carpet design coloring.
• If colors are used on a light background (such as white, yellow, buff, pink, light green, dark blue), the contour colors will be the contrast color of the background color. Fill colors should be light tones of contrasting colors.
• If colors are used on dark ground (such as red, navy blue, brown, dark green, dark blue), the contour colors will be the opposite colors of the background color. Fill colors should be dark tones of stroke colors.
• The color of the border should be weighted in the motifs. The color researcher must first have a good knowledge of color. Each color in the paint set to be used should be mixed in equal amounts with another color and a color table should be made by painting its own square. Thus, this table is consulted to find the most suitable color in design works.
Color determination: Border, belly and other motifs, where we will determine the colors to be used in the design of the carpet, specifying the side of the design.
Transferring the drafting work to checked paper: The most important process step of the carpet design that has been drafted is the transferring work to the checkered paper. The issue that needs to be emphasized here is to perform the operation knowing that each frame represents a node.
Coloring the design: The pencil sketch is done and the pattern determined on the checkered paper is painted with the appropriate colors that we will apply. The coloring process is done by selecting the appropriate coloring tools such as watercolor, felt-tip pen, gouache paint, which we mentioned earlier. Coloring from top to bottom, the inside of the frames are painted by filling each node from the colors of the nodes that they represent to be a square. After coloring the squares to the specified colors, the pattern work is completed by painting the entire color in accordance with the backdrop of the carpet.
Design card preparation: Prepared and colored patterns are divided into pieces according to the model is numbered. Divided parts are glued on plywood, cardboard, chipboard. Taking into consideration that the patterns will be used later, the patterns adhered to the plates are varnished by spraying or brush application with transparent varnish (glass varnish) so as not to impair the feature of the pattern in order to prevent any wear. Another method of protection is to cover the surface with a transparent coating material (nylon).
Carpet Design Preparation on Computer
With the development of technology, carpet designs are prepared on a computer and transferred to plaid paper and coloring processes are performed. Transferring in a computer environment is done by installing ready-made package programs obtained from software companies on the computer. However, because these programs are expensive, carpets woven in homes do not use this method for pattern extraction.
Carpet Pattern Design Methods in Computer
- To transfer the free motifs drawn to the checkered environment to the computer with the mouse.
- Transferring the motifs in the line environment to the computer via scanner and cleaning them by squaring.
- Transferring the plans in the line environment to the computer via scanner and cleaning the squares.
- Transferring the various elements and textures of nature recorded as photographs and graphics to the computer and making them a motif and texture plan that can be used in a checkered environment.
- Determination of working points width, length number according to product quality and size.
- From the archives, plans and textures archived to the computer, the design is created in accordance with the fashion of the day, the material used, the weaving technique, the color, the desired quality, and the price policy.
Examples of Most Used and Popular Designs
Forbo’s Tessera Cloudscape Flooring Features Patterns Based on Cloud Formations
The latest range of carpet tiles from Forbo Flooring Systems is designed to contribute to a relaxing work environment, by encouraging mindfulness and a connection to nature. There are 16 color options ranges from oranges and blues to greens and greys. Each one is designed to resemble changeable cloud formations. Each color is named after different weather phenomena. The flooring system is made up of plush carpeted squares that utilize a multi-height loop system, to provide maximum comfort underfoot as well as an attractive colored pattern. Customers can easily create an integrated flooring scheme that fits any of their office requirements across different functional zones.
Marazzi Creates Patterned Stoneware for Indoor and Outdoor Use
Marazzi who is an Italian manufacturer has launched a range of patterned stoneware flooring. They can be used both indoors and outdoors purposes. They are inspired by traditional Kolam designs made using rice and colored flour, and Indian henna tattoos. There is antique but transient decoration, which reinforces and evokes a sense of place and pays homage to a rite of belonging, as ideal for adding value to material without letting the decoration as such predominate over its actual substance. Applied using a printing screen, the tiles are made of porcelain but offer the appearance of natural stone. The tiles can be used on floors and walls and can be used both indoors and outdoors. The tiles are skid-resistant, frost proof and resistant to deep abrasion.
Walter Knoll’s Legends of Carpets Collection Based on African Landscapes
They are abstract patterns and natural hues feature in German brand Walter Knoll’s carpet collection. They are inspired by the continent of Africa. The silk carpets and Badawi cushions are part of the collection. They were designed in collaboration with fabric designer Helmut Scheufele to embody the landscapes and colors of Africa. It is described as images of naturalness and elegance. The collection draws its strength from the creativity of the continent which materializes into timeless, woven works of art. On some models, the intense reds and blues are reminiscent of reflections in the sky at sunrise. On the other hand, on others, dark natural hues seem to highlight the sparse beauty of rock layers in the desert. The carpets are made from a combination of wool, silk and nettle yarn and feature accents of color, ranging from sun and sky to blossom and sandstorm.
Patricia Urquiola’s Color-Blocked Rugs Create Optical Illusions
The block colors and black outlines of these rugs by Spanish designer Patricia Urquiola create a false sense of depth by tricking the eye. The two rug sets appear three-dimensional thanks to Titled Rotazioni and Visioni’s geometric patterning. A set of cylindrical shapes are overlaid to form a large square and rectangular compositions with rounded corners. Each tube-like portion is colored differently, from slate blue to lavender and pale rust, and patterned with a gradient to appear round. A scale of pastel colors and chromatic contrasts insinuate the gradient on the surface of the cylinders, creating a three-dimensional effect. The Visioni designs feature rectangles, parallelograms and other shapes that produce a similar 3D effect, created with the simple technique used for drawing a cube on paper. One version is colored with grey, taupe, cream, and mustard tones, while another has more colorful elements of rust, mustard, dusty pink, a blue-white, yellow and caramel. People that work in a less industrial way, people that have a more artisanal way of thinking, they are never scared to take risks.
Abc Carpet & Home Showcases New Rug Collection in an Underground Cave
The brand’s campaign centers on the exclusive Alchemy rug collection, which is made from recycled materials. Inspired by nature’s creative cycles, each Alchemy rug is woven by artisans using excess sheared silk and wool salvaged from previously produced rugs. It is both physically and emotionally challenging Project. It is also the most rewarding campaign nowadays. Each rug features modern takes on traditional designs, with a distinct washing process that creates a silk-like sheen on the surface of each rug. The recycled silk and wool produce unexpected colors and patterns, making every Alchemy rug unique in appearance.
Tom Dixon’s Industrial Landscape Carpets Are Based on London Architecture
Tom Dixon who is one of the British designers has created a collection of seven rugs influenced by patterns found around London. The carpets feature repetitive motifs based on shapes found in streets and buildings around the city, including paving slabs, bricks, and railway backdrops. Dixon’s Brick design features irregularly arranged rectangular green shapes, while the all-black Crack carpet seeks to replicate the appearance of broken concrete. More natural forms are shown in the Smoke rug, which features billowing white clouds against a brown backdrop, while the black and white Tide design appears to recreate the waves of the River Thames. The collection is a series of patterns and textures that come naturally from the building process or the erosion process. Each of the designs is available as carpet tiles or woven carpets, allowing buyers to mix and match patterns.
Unstudio’s Hem Carpet Collection Features Pixel-Like Patterns
A digital pixelation process was used to create non-directional patterns across the carpets, which appear as different graphic effects when viewed from various angles and distances. The close-weave carpets feature one dominant color and small dots in a number of other hues. They are available in 34 different combinations. Part of the inspiration for the designs and the patterns was to give them more complexity through the use of different colors and the directionality of active movement. This creates a spatial layering quality which is quite unusual in a two-dimensional surface but is something that can often be found in our work. Furthermore, architects have the advantage of taking spatial and contextual considerations into account when designing products.
Moooi’s New Photorealistic Carpets Could Give Designers “a New Kind of Freedom”
Moooi says that instead of hard, glassy environments that are really testing, you might bring comfort in new ways. And he added imagine a space where you can go from a wall to a floor to even a piece of furniture in a seamlessly integrated way. It would bring designers and architects a new kind of freedom. The technology enables designers to do things they could not ever do before. Designers are able to make carpets with extreme definition, extreme detail. They can do broadloom, they can do wall-t0-wall spaces. It is kind of print on demand carpets. Moooi uses a giant 100-meter-long machine in Germany to print the carpets, which can be up to four meters wide. There is a range of 648 colors that can be used and they are precise, they are very accurate. The technical specifications of the machine allow designers to go very deep with the ink into the pile of the carpet. Moooi Carpets will also produce a series of template designs called Moooi Works, which can be customized with different colors and sizes, while customers will also be able to have their own designs or photographs printed from scratch. You can make your own world, basically with Moooi.
Wooden Carpet by Elisa Stroyzk
The geometric pieces are laser-cut or cut by hand then bonded to a textile backing. The project “wooden textiles” intends to look at the material wood in a new way. Geometric wooden pieces compose a flexible surface which can perform in different three-dimensional shapes. The material ranges between hard and soft, parquet and carpet, blurring relationships between furniture and textiles. The inspiration behind the project is material itself and designers’ presumptions about it. They are working with veneer wood leftovers from a wood workshop which is closing down. The wood is cut by hand or laser-cut into pieces of different geometric shapes. All pieces are stuck by hand on a textile base and compose a flexible surface.